Laurtaro Martinez scored at the 29th minute to give La albiceleste a much-needed win over Columbia.
Argentina did not have their talisman Lionel Messi who is still recovering from covid-19.
Columbian goalkeeper Camilo Vargas made crucial saves against Angel di Maria of Argentina but could not save the one from Laurtaro Martinez from the penalty spot.
The top four teams in the South American region qualify automatically for Qatar, while the fifth-placed team faces an Asian team in a playoff.
Brazil and Argentina have already qualified, and Ecuador’s 24 points ensure that they will be joining them soon.
Colombia is now in seventh place in the 10-team standings with 17 points, five points behind Uruguay, two points behind Chile, and three points behind Peru, who might improve their position even more if they beat Ecuador later on Tuesday.
Chile had previously defeated Bolivia 3-2 in La Paz, due to two goals from Alexis Sanchez and one from Marcelino Nunez. With 19 points, the Chileans remained in contention in the sixth position.